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Lua Features

Detailed descriptions and examples of Lua features offered by ESB3024 Router.

1 - Global Lua Tables

Details on all global Lua tables and the data they contain.

There are multiple global tables containing important data available while writing Lua code for the router.

selection_input

Contains arbitrary, custom fields fed into the router by clients, see API overview for details on how to inject data into this table.

Note that the selection_input table is iterable.

Usage examples:

print(selection_input['some_value'])

-- Iterate over table
if selection_input then
    for k, v in pairs(selection_input) do
        print('here is '..'selection_input!')
        print(k..'='..v)
    end
else
    print('selection_input is nil')
end

session_groups

Defines a mapping from session group name to boolean, indicating whether the session belongs to the session group or not.

Usage examples:

if session_groups.vod then print('vod') else print('not vod') end
if session_groups['vod'] then print('vod') else print('not vod') end

session_count

Provides counters of number of session types per session group. The table uses the structure qoe_score.<session_type>.<session_group>.

Usage examples:

print(session_count.instream.vod)
print(session_count.initial.vod)

qoe_score

Provides the quality of experience score per host per session group. The table uses the structure qoe_score.<host>.<session_group>.

Usage examples:

print(qoe_score.host1.vod)
print(qoe_score.host1.live)

request

Contains data related to the HTTP request between the client and the router.

  • request.method
    • Description: HTTP request method.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'GET', 'POST'
  • request.body
    • Description: HTTP request body string.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • request.major_version
    • Description: Major HTTP version such as x in HTTP/x.1.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • request.minor_version
    • Description: Minor HTTP version such as x in HTTP/1.x.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • request.protocol
    • Description: Transfer protocol variant.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'HTTP', 'HTTPS'
  • request.client_ip
    • Description: IP address of the client issuing the request.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '172.16.238.128'
  • request.path_with_query_params
    • Description: Full request path including query parameters.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '/mycontent/superman.m3u8?b=y&c=z&a=x'
  • request.path
    • Description: Request path without query parameters.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '/mycontent/superman.m3u8'
  • request.query_params
    • Description: The query parameter string.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'b=y&c=z&a=x'
  • request.filename
    • Description: The part of the path following the final slash, if any.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'superman.m3u8'
  • request.subnet
    • Description: Subnet of client_ip.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: 'all'

session

Contains data related to the current session.

  • session.client_ip
    • Description: Alias for request.client_ip. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.path_with_query_params
    • Description: Alias for request.path_with_query_params. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.path
    • Description: Alias for request.path. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.query_params
    • Description: Alias for request.query_params. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.filename
    • Description: Alias for request.filename. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.subnet
    • Description: Alias for request.subnet. See documentation for table request above.
  • session.host
    • Description: ID of the currently selected host for the session.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: 'host1'
  • session.id
    • Description: ID of the session.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '8eb2c1bdc106-17d2ff-00000000'
  • session.session_type
    • Description: Type of the session.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'initial' or 'instream'. Identical to the value of the Type argument of the session translation function.
  • session.is_managed
    • Description: Identifies managed sessions.
    • Type: boolean
    • Example: true if Type/session.session_type is 'instream'

request_headers

Contains the headers from the request between the client and the router, keyed by name.

Usage example:

print(request_headers['User-Agent'])

request_query_params

Contains the query parameters from the request between the client and the router, keyed by name.

Usage example:

print(request_query_params.a)

session_query_params

Alias for metatable request_query_params.

response

Contains data related to the outgoing response apart from the headers.

  • response.body
    • Description: HTTP response body string.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • response.code
    • Description: HTTP response status code.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 200, 404
  • response.text
    • Description: HTTP response status text.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'OK', 'Not found'
  • response.major_version
    • Description: Major HTTP version such as x in HTTP/x.1.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • response.minor_version
    • Description: Minor HTTP version such as x in HTTP/1.x.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • response.protocol
    • Description: Transfer protocol variant.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'HTTP', 'HTTPS'

response_headers

Contains the response headers keyed by name.

Usage example:

print(response_headers['User-Agent'])

2 - Health Check Functions

Built in Lua health check functions

This section details built in Lua functions that are meant to be used for host health checks. Note that these functions rely on data supplied by metric agents detailed in Cache hardware metrics: monitoring and routing. Make sure cache hardware metrics are supplied to the router before using any of these functions.

cpu_load_ok()

Parameters

The function accepts an optional argument table with the following keys:

  • Optional hostname: The name of the host. Defaults to the hostname of the selected host if not provided.
  • Optional cpu_load5_limit: The acceptable limit for the 5-minute CPU load. Defaults to 0.9 if not provided.

Returns

The function returns 1 if the five minute CPU load average is below their respective limits, and 0 otherwise.

Usage examples

cpu_load_ok()
cpu_load_ok({hostname = "custom_host"})
cpu_load_ok({cpu_load5_limit = 0.8})
cpu_load_ok({hostname = "custom_host", cpu_load5_limit = 0.8})

memory_usage_ok()

Parameters

The function accepts an optional argument table with the following keys:

  • Optional hostname: The name of the host. Defaults to the hostname of the selected host if not provided.
  • Optional memory_usage_limit: The acceptable limit for the memory usage. Defaults to 0.9 if not provided.

Returns

The function returns 1 if the memory usage is below the limit, and 0 otherwise.

Usage examples

memory_usage_ok()
memory_usage_ok({hostname = "custom_host"})
memory_usage_ok({memory_usage_limit = 0.7})
memory_usage_ok({hostname = "custom_host", memory_usage_limit = 0.7})

interfaces_online()

Parameters

The function accepts an argument table with the following keys:

  • Required interfaces: A string or a table of strings representing the network interfaces to check.
  • Optional hostname: The name of the host. Defaults to the hostname of the selected host if not provided.

Returns

The function returns 1 if all the specified interfaces are online, and 0 otherwise.

Usage examples

interfaces_online({interfaces = "eth0"})
interfaces_online({interfaces = {"eth0", "eth1"}})
interfaces_online({hostname = "custom_host", interfaces = "eth0"})
interfaces_online({hostname = "custom_host", interfaces = {"eth0", "eth1"}})

health_check()

Parameters

The function accepts an optional argument table with the following keys:

  • Required interfaces: A string or a table of strings representing the network interfaces to check.
  • Optional hostname: The name of the host. Defaults to the hostname of the selected host if not provided.
  • Optional cpu_load5_limit: The acceptable limit for the 5-minute CPU load. Defaults to 0.9 if not provided.
  • Optional memory_usage_limit: The acceptable limit for the memory usage. Defaults to 0.9 if not provided.

Returns

The function returns 1 if all the specified interfaces are online, and 0 otherwise.

Usage examples

health_check({interfaces = "eths0"})
health_check({hostname = "custom_host", interfaces = "eths0"})
health_check({cpu_load5_limit = 0.7, memory_usage_limit = 0.8, interfaces = "eth0"})
health_check({hostname = "custom_host", cpu_load5_limit = 0.7, memory_usage_limit = 0.8, interfaces = {"eth0", "eth1"}})

3 - Request Translation Function

Instructions for how to write a function to modify incoming requests before routing decisions are being made.

Specifies the body of a Lua function that inspects every incoming HTTP request and overwrites individual fields before further processing by the router.

Returns nil when nothing is to be changed, or HTTPRequest(t) where t is a table with any of the following optional fields:

  • Method
    • Description: Replaces the HTTP request method in the request being processed.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'GET', 'POST'
  • Path
    • Description: Replaces the request path in the request being processed.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '/mycontent/superman.m3u8'
  • ClientIp
    • Description: Replaces client IP address in the request being processed.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '172.16.238.128'
  • Body
    • Description: Replaces body in the request being processed.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • QueryParameters
    • Description: Adds, removes or replaces individual query parameters in the request being processed.
    • Type: nested table (indexed by number) representing an array of query parameters as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are added to the request being processed, or overwriting existing query parameters with colliding names. To remove a query parameter from the request, specify nil as value, i.e. QueryParameters={..., {[1]='foo',[2]=nil} ...}. Returning a query parameter with a name but no value, such as a in the request '/index.m3u8?a&b=22' is currently not supported.
  • Headers
    • Description: Adds, removes or replaces individual headers in the request being processed.
    • Type: nested table (indexed by number) representing an array of request headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are added to the request being processed, or overwriting existing request headers with colliding names. To remove a header from the request, specify nil as value, i.e. Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]=nil} ...}. Duplicate names are supported. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is defined by specifying Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar2'}, ...}.

Example of a request_translation_function body that sets the request path to a hardcoded value and adds the hardcoded query parameter a=b:

-- Statements go here
print('Setting hardcoded Path and QueryParameters')
return HTTPRequest({
  Path = '/content.mpd',
  QueryParameters = {
    {'a','b'}
  }
})

Arguments

The following (iterable) arguments will be known by the function:

QueryParameters

  • Type: nested table (indexed by number).

  • Description: Array of query parameters as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that were present in the query string of the request. Format identical to the HTTPRequest.QueryParameters-field specified for the return value above.

  • Example usage:

    for _, queryParam in pairs(QueryParameters) do
      print(queryParam[1]..'='..queryParam[2])
    end
    

Headers

  • Type: nested table (indexed by number).

  • Description: Array of request headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that were present in the request. Format identical to the HTTPRequest.Headers-field specified for the return value above. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is seen in request_translation_function as Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, ...}.

  • Example usage:

    for _, header in pairs(Headers) do
      print(header[1]..'='..header[2])
    end
    

Additional data

In addition to the arguments above, the following Lua tables, documented in Global Lua Tables, provide additional data that is available when executing the request translation function:

If the request translation function modifies the request, the request, request_query_params and request_headers tables will be updated with the modified request and made available to the routing rules.

4 - Session Translation Function

Instructions for how to write a function to modify a client session to affect how it is handled by the router.

Specifies the body of a Lua function that inspects a newly created session and may override its suggested type from “initial” to “instream” or vice versa. A number of helper functions are provided to simplify changing the session type.

Returns nil when the session type is to remain unchanged, or Session(t) where t is a table with a single field:

  • Type
    • Description: New type of the session.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'instream', 'initial'

Basic Configuration

It is possible to configure the maximum number of simultaneous managed sessions on the router. If the maximum number is reached, no more managed sessions can be created. Using confcli, it can be configured by running

$ confcli services.routing.tuning.general.maxActiveManagedSessions
{
    "maxActiveManagedSessions": 1000
}
$ confcli services.routing.tuning.general.maxActiveManagedSessions 900
services.routing.tuning.general.maxActiveManagedSessions = 900

Common Arguments

While executing the session translation function, the following arguments are available:

  • Type: The current type of the session ('instream' or 'initial').

Usage examples:

-- Flip session type
local newType = 'initial'
if Type == 'initial' then
    newType = 'instream'
end
print('Changing session type from ' .. Type .. ' to ' .. newType)
return Session({['Type'] = newType})

Session Translation Helper Functions

The standard Lua library prodives four helper functions to simplify the configuration of the session translation function:

set_session_type(session_type)

This function will set the session type to the supplied session_type and the maximum number of sessions of that type has not been reached.

Parameters

  • session_type: The type of session to create, possible values are ‘initial’ or ‘instream’.

Usage Examples

return set_session_type('instream')
return set_session_type('initial')

set_session_type_if_in_group(session_type, session_group)

This function will set the session type to the supplied session_type if the session is part of session_group and the maximum number of sessions of that type has not been reached.

Parameters

  • session_type: The type of session to create, possible values are ‘initial’ or ‘instream’.
  • session_group: The name of the session group.

Usage Examples

return set_session_type_if_in_group('instream', 'sg1')

set_session_type_if_in_all_groups(session_type, session_groups)

This function will set the session type to the supplied session_type if the session is part of all session groups given by session_groups and the maximum number of sessions of that type has not been reached.

Parameters

  • session_type: The type of session to create, possible values are ‘initial’ or ‘instream’.
  • session_groups: A list of session group names.

Usage Examples

return set_session_type_if_in_all_groups('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})

set_session_type_if_in_any_group(session_type)

This function will set the session type to the supplied session_type if the session is part of one or more of the session groups given by session_groups and the maximum number of sessions of that type has not been reached.

Parameters

  • session_type: The type of session to create, possible values are ‘initial’ or ‘instream’.
  • session_groups: A list of session group names.

Usage Examples

return set_session_type_if_in_any_group('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})

Configuration

Using confcli, example of how the functions above can be used in the session translation function can be configured by running any of

$ confcli services.routing.translationFunctions.session "return set_session_type('instream')"
services.routing.translationFunctions.session = "return set_session_type('instream')"

$ confcli services.routing.translationFunctions.session "return set_session_type_if_in_group('instream', 'sg1')"
services.routing.translationFunctions.session = "return set_session_type_if_in_group('instream', 'sg1')"

$ confcli services.routing.translationFunctions.session "return set_session_type_if_in_all_groups('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})"
services.routing.translationFunctions.session = "return set_session_type_if_in_all_groups('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})"

$ confcli services.routing.translationFunctions.session "return set_session_type_if_in_any_group('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})"
services.routing.translationFunctions.session = "return set_session_type_if_in_any_group('instream', {'sg1', 'sg2'})"

Additional data

In addition to the arguments above, the following Lua tables, documented in Global Lua Tables, provide additional data that is available when executing the response translation function:

The selection_input table will not change while a routing request is handled. A request_translation_function and the corresponding response_translation_function will see the same selection_input table, even if the selection data is updated while the request is being handled.

5 - CDN Request Translation Function

Instructions on how to write a function to modify requests that are sent to redirecting CDNs.

Specifies the body of a Lua function that inspects every HTTP request that is sent to a redirecting CDN and overwrites individual fields before it is sent to the CDN.

Returns nil when nothing is to be changed, or HTTPRequest(t) where t is a table with any of the following optional fields:

  • Method
    • Description: Replaces the HTTP request method in the request being processed.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'GET', 'POST'
  • Path
    • Description: Replaces the request path in the request being processed.
    • Type: string
    • Example: '/mycontent/superman.m3u8'
  • Body
    • Description: Replaces body in the request being processed.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • QueryParameters
    • Description: Adds, removes or replaces individual query parameters in the request being processed.
    • Type: nested table (indexed by number) representing an array of query parameters as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are added to the request being processed, or overwriting existing query parameters with colliding names. To remove a query parameter from the request, specify nil as value, i.e. QueryParameters={..., {[1]='foo',[2]=nil} ...}. Returning a query parameter with a name but no value, such as a in the request '/index.m3u8?a&b=22' is currently not supported.
  • Headers
    • Description: Adds, removes or replaces individual headers in the request being processed.
    • Type: nested table (indexed by number) representing an array of request headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are added to the request being processed, or overwriting existing request headers with colliding names. To remove a header from the request, specify nil as value, i.e. Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]=nil} ...}. Duplicate names are supported. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is defined by specifying Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar2'}, ...}.
  • Host
    • Description: Replaces the host that the request is sent to.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'new-cdn.example.com', '192.0.2.7'
  • Port
    • Description: Replaces the TCP port that the request is sent to.
    • Type: number
    • Example: 8081
  • Protocol
    • Description: Decides which protocol that will be used for sending the request. Valid protocols are 'HTTP' and 'HTTPS'.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'HTTP', 'HTTPS'

Example of a cdn_request_translation_function body that sets the request path to a hardcoded value and adds the hardcoded query parameter a=b:

-- Statements go here
print('Setting hardcoded Path and QueryParameters')
return HTTPRequest({
  Path = '/content.mpd',
  QueryParameters = {
    {'a','b'}
  }
})

Arguments

The following (iterable) arguments will be known by the function:

QueryParameters

  • Type: nested table (indexed by number).

  • Description: Array of query parameters as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are present in the query string of the request from the client to the router. Format identical to the HTTPRequest.QueryParameters-field specified for the return value above.

  • Example usage:

    for _, queryParam in pairs(QueryParameters) do
      print(queryParam[1]..'='..queryParam[2])
    end
    

Headers

  • Type: nested table (indexed by number).

  • Description: Array of request headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are present in the request from the client to the router. Format identical to the HTTPRequest.Headers-field specified for the return value above. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is seen in cdn_request_translation_function as Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, ...}.

  • Example usage:

    for _, header in pairs(Headers) do
      print(header[1]..'='..header[2])
    end
    

Global tables

The following non-iterable global tables are available for use by the cdn_request_translation_function.

Table outgoing_request

The outgoing_request table contains the request that is to be sent to the redirecting CDN.

  • outgoing_request.method
    • Description: HTTP request method.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'GET', 'POST'
  • outgoing_request.body
    • Description: HTTP request body string.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • outgoing_request.major_version
    • Description: Major HTTP version such as x in HTTP/x.1.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • outgoing_request.minor_version
    • Description: Minor HTTP version such as x in HTTP/1.x.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • outgoing_request.protocol
    • Description: Transfer protocol variant.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'HTTP', 'HTTPS'

Table outgoing_request_headers

Contains the request headers from the request that is to be sent to the redirecting CDN, keyed by name.

Example:

print(outgoing_request_headers['X-Forwarded-For'])

Multiple values are separated with a comma.

Additional data

In addition to the arguments above, the following Lua tables, documented in Global Lua Tables, provide additional data that is available when executing the request translation function:

6 - Response Translation Function

Instructions for how to write a function to modify outgoing responses after a routing decision has been made.

Specifies the body of a Lua function that inspects every outgoing HTTP response and overwrites individual fields before being sent to the client.

Returns nil when nothing is to be changed, or HTTPResponse(t) where t is a table with any of the following optional fields:

  • Code
    • Description: Replaces status code in the response being sent.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 200, 404
  • Text
    • Description: Replaces status text in the response being sent.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'OK', 'Not found'
  • MajorVersion
    • Description: Replaces major HTTP version such as x in HTTP/x.1 in the response being sent.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • MinorVersion
    • Description: Replaces minor HTTP version such as x in HTTP/1.x in the response being sent.
    • Type: integer
    • Example: 1
  • Protocol
    • Description: Replaces protocol in the response being sent.
    • Type: string
    • Example: 'HTTP', 'HTTPS'
  • Body
    • Description: Replaces body in the response being sent.
    • Type: string or nil
    • Example: '{"foo": "bar"}'
  • Headers
    • Description: Adds, removes or replaces individual headers in the response being sent.
    • Type: nested table (indexed by number) representing an array of response headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are added to the response being sent, or overwriting existing request headers with colliding names. To remove a header from the response, specify nil as value, i.e. Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]=nil} ...}. Duplicate names are supported. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is defined by specifying Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar2'}, ...}.

Example of a response_translation_function body that sets the Location header to a hardcoded value:

-- Statements go here
print('Setting hardcoded Location')
return HTTPResponse({
  Headers = {
    {'Location', 'cdn1.com/content.mpd?a=b'}
  }
})

Arguments

The following (iterable) arguments will be known by the function:

Headers

  • Type: nested table (indexed by number).

  • Description: Array of response headers as {[1]='Name',[2]='Value'} pairs that are present in the response being sent. Format identical to the HTTPResponse.Headers-field specified for the return value above. A multi-value header such as Foo: bar1,bar2 is seen in response_translation_function as Headers={..., {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, {[1]='foo',[2]='bar1'}, ...}.

  • Example usage:

    for _, header in pairs(Headers) do
      print(header[1]..'='..header[2])
    end
    

Additional data

In addition to the arguments above, the following Lua tables, documented in Global Lua Tables, provide additional data that is available when executing the response translation function: